You MUST be in EDIT MODE to use these tools
Add Edge Loop: Press Ctrl+R. Hover mouse over area. Use scroll wheel to adjust loop number.
Click>Slide in position>Right-Click to snap to center
Bevel: Select one or more edges. Press Ctrl+B. Move cursor to adjust depth. Use scroll wheel to adjust smoothness.
Knife Cut: Press K. Move cursor to desired area. Click, then move mouse to another edge to connect edges. Press Enter to finalize.
Subdivide: Select Faces/Edge. Press W. Select subdivide.